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Health and Well-being Indicators

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Anemia is characterized by low level of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is necessary for transporting oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and organs of the body. Anemia in younger children is a matter of serious concern as it can result in impaired cognitive performance behavioral development as well as increased mortality from infectious diseases. In India, anemia is a serious health problem and affects men, women and children. A main reason for Anemia is non-availability of adequate food for women and children. This has morbidity implications in the context of rising food price.

Morbidity indicates a state of departure from a normal physical or mental well being of a individual. Morbidity rate refers to the number of individuals affected by illness during a given period (prevalence rate) or the number of newly appearing cases of diseases per unit of time (incidence rate). As per National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), morbidity rates refers to the proportion of Ailing Persons, measured as the number of persons reporting ailment during a 15 day per period per 1000 persons for broad age groups.

Mortality rate is an indicator of number of deaths in a population or sub population, scaled to size of the population per unit of time. Mortality varies access the various sub groups of population. The main indicators of mortality are:

Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) refers to the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 women of reproductive age in a year.

Child Mortality Rate (CMR) refers to the number of deaths of children less than 5 years of age per 1000 live births.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) refers to the number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1000 live births.

Neo natal Mortality Rate refers to the number of deaths of children less than 28 days per 1000 live births.

Peri-natal Mortality Rate refers to the sum total of neo-natal death and foetal deaths (still births) per 1000 live births.

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